Published twice a year, the Frontier Markets Debt Monitor tracks indebtedness by sector across key frontier markets and low-income countries.
Total debt in frontier markets surged to a new record high of $3.5 trillion in 2021-some $500 billion above pre-pandemic levels. However, after reaching an all-time high in 2020, FM debt declined to 108% of GDP in 2021-helped by recovery and inflation.
Total debt in frontier markets (FM) reached a record high of nearly 110% of GDP in 2020, up from less than 100% in 2019. We have added 15 new countries to our FM debt database.
Total frontier market debt hit a new record of over 120% of GDP in Q2 2020, up 6 percentage points from end-2019. The COVID-19 pandemic has placed a spotlight on rising global debt levels and sovereign debt vulnerabilities.
Driven mainly by government borrowing, the debt to GDP ratio in frontier markets hit a fresh all-time high of 114% in Q3 2019, with total debt nearing $3.2 trillion, up by nearly $75 billion in the first three quarters of 2019.